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The Anatomy of a Wheel Loader Bucket

A wheel loader’s bucket is a pretty straightforward attachment — but it’s also arguably the most important component on the machine, as it has a significant effect on productivity, machine uptime and performance in aggregates operations.

While there are a number of selections, features and variables that go into choosing the right wheel loader bucket type, teeth and cutting edges, the decision can be made simple by knowing and understanding your operation and materials you work with each day.

Material Density Matters

There are four essential styles of wheel loader buckets: light material, general purpose, 4-in-1 and rock buckets. In addition, there are pin-on and coupler configurations to consider with each of those styles.

Determining the bucket style that is best for your needs starts with your machine size and primary material density. Some operations may be moving a combination of sand, stone, dirt or gravel, while machines in other pits are focused on just one of those materials. Bucket choice should be a reflection of the heaviest material density being handled the majority of the time, as well as by the abrasiveness of the material being moved.

One consideration to keep in mind is that in damp or rainy climates, sand may be your heaviest material due to its ability to retain water. In more arid climates, that is likely not the case, so it is uniquely dependent on your geographic location and climate.

Sizing Considerations

One of the first core decisions to make about a wheel loader bucket is its size. It may seem intuitive to default to “bigger is better,” but ultimately the decision needs to evaluate the size and power of the wheel loader, the production expectations of the operation, the abrasiveness of the material, and then the size of the trucks and hoppers the wheel loader is filling. A few things to keep in mind:

  • Bucket capacity is important, but remember that the weight of the bucket will change based on what type of bucket it is. A rock bucket is going to be heavier than other bucket styles, and as such may have a greater affect on operating speeds/performance than a lighter bucket.
  • A smaller, heavier, stronger bucket may be best for standing up to work in really abrasive environments. The more abrasive the soil or material, the stronger the bucket is recommended to maximize bucket life or reduce bucket replacement costs.
  • Optimal bucket capacity is going to be decided not only by the machine, but by the size and types of containers it is loading. If, for instance, you know your operation runs at optimal performance when trucks can be loaded in three passes, pick the best combination of bucket to truck capacity (within the operating parameters of the loader).
  • As long as it’s within the operating capacity of the loader, it may be better to err on the side of a larger bucket, as a smaller bucket may result in it taking too many passes to fill trucks or hoppers, and therefore slowing other downstream activities.

Aligning Applications

A light material bucket is a great solution for operations moving materials like wood pulp, dry dirt, or even waste. Agricultural operations could also be a fit for a light material bucket. These buckets give the user the greatest amount of capacity and volume — but may not ultimately be the best for working in aggregates operations.

General-purpose buckets, on the other hand, are a good middle-ground solution if you’re working with a variety of materials and conditions. They are stronger and more durable than light material buckets. They can be used for moving light materials, aggregates and sand. While the flexibility of general-purpose buckets make sense for many organizations, you will sacrifice some of the bucket capacity available with light material options — but they will stand up better when working in abrasive conditions.

The next option is the 4-in-1 multi-use bucket. This bucket gives you the option to bulldoze, clam, pick up, dump and load, all in one attachment. They also add a unique level of flexibility on construction job sites, but added hardware that provides the moving parts adds weight, which translates to generally smaller bucket options than what the general purpose buckets offer. These hydraulically-operated buckets provide major versatility — but are not generally practical in aggregates operations.

Finally, is the rock bucket, which has a number of varieties, but is designed for the most rugged applications and rock handling. Rock buckets come equipped with heavy-duty lips to protect against scalloping, and can also come with specialized rock teeth, cutting edges or segments that can provide even more protection to the lips of the bucket. These attachments are going to be found most in quarries and other severe applications.

Operators moving heavy, high-density materials such as granite – a much more abrasive material than limestone, for example – will want to consider heavy duty rock buckets with additional protective elements. Those come in both bolt-on or weld-on varieties.

To Couple or Not to Couple

When considering the type of connection you want for your implement, there is really one main consideration: will the bucket remain on a dedicated machine, or will you need to switch between bucket types?

If you’re going to use the attachment on a dedicated piece of equipment, the pin-on connection is the best option. Other quick coupler connections, predominantly JRB- or ACS-style connectors, allow operators to switch quickly between multiple buckets and attachments. This is a great feature for operators working in diverse situations that may include a variety of aggregate or material types.

Accessorizing to Maximize Profitability

There are additional options to consider that can increase the profitability of the bucket. For most buckets, you can add bolt-on teeth and cutting edges that can take a base model bucket and adjust it to the particular needs at that time, making the attachment more versatile and, by virtue, profitable.

For example, say a loader one month is fracturing ground or rock, they would be a great fit for a bolt-on system featuring teeth. Then, the next month, the same operation is moving sand. In that scenario you would take the teeth off, replacing it with a bolt-on cutting blade. These best practices not only make the equipment more effective, but it prolongs their lifecycle by minimizing wear to the bucket lip.

In addition to using cutting edges, there are also aftermarket wear protectors that are available to help minimize wear and tear on your bucket both on the main lip and the sidewalls. These relatively small additions can make a big impact on the lifespan of a wheel loader’s bucket.

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